In Reception, children are given the opportunity to develop their understanding of number, measurement, pattern and shape and space through a combination of short, formal teaching sessions as well as a range of planned structured play situations, where there is plenty of scope for exploration. Children will become very competent ‘counters’ so that their fluency with the number system provides a foundation for mathematical understanding. Counting forwards and backwards in many different sized steps as well as from different starting and ending points is essential. Maths learning builds from a concrete understanding of concepts where children are manipulating objects. When children are able to see concepts this way, they then need to understand the same concepts represented pictorially. Children are then ready for abstract representation before being able to apply their knowledge to different situations. .